VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol that propagates the definition of Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN) on the whole local area network. To do this, VTP carries VLAN information to all the switches in a VTP domain.
Rapid per VLAN Spanning Tree (Rapid PVST+) is an updated implementation of STP that allows you to create one spanning tree topology for each VLAN. Rapid PVST+ is the default STP mode on the switch.
As networks begun to grow and become more complex, VLANs were introduced, allowing the creation of multiple logical and physical networks. It was then necessary to run multiple instances of STP in order to accommodate each network – VLAN. These multiple instances are called Multiple Spanning Tree (MST), Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST) and Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Plus (PVST+).
BPDU stands for bridge protocol data unit. BPDUs are data messages that are exchanged across the switches within an extended LAN that uses a spanning tree protocol topology. BPDU packets contain information on ports, addresses, priorities and costs and ensure that the data ends up where it was intended to go. BPDU messages are exchanged across bridges to detect loops in a network topology. The loops are then removed by shutting down selected bridge interfaces and placing redundant switch ports in a backup, or blocked, state.
Portfast is a Cisco Propietary feature that was originally developed to overcome an issue when a PC was trying to obtain a DHCP address and going past the DHCP process before the port had gone into a forwarding state. The portfast feature brought the port into a forwarding state as soon as it came up enabling the PC to obtain a DHCP address. The feature was then standardised and is now called the Edge port.