CCNA Security IINS Exam Topics | 1.3 Cryptography concepts Day 3

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1.3.a Describe key exchange:

Key exchange (also key establishment) is any method in cryptography by which cryptographic keys are exchanged between two parties, allowing use of a cryptographic algorithm.

1.3.b Describe hash algorithm:

Hashing is a method used to verify data integrity. A cryptographic hash function is a process that takes a block of data and creates a small fixed-sized hash value. It is a one-way function, meaning that if two different computers take the same data and run the same hash function, they should get the same fixed-sized hash value.

1.3.c Compare and contrast symmetric and asymmetric encryption:

Symmetric Encryption:

An encryption algorithm that uses the same key or keys for encryption and the exact same key or keys for decryption is an example of a symmetrical encryption algorithm.

Asymmetric Encryption:
An example of an asymmetric algorithm is public key algorithms.
Instead of using the same key for encrypting and decrypting, we use two different keys that mathematically work together as a pair. Let’s call these keys the public key (Encrypts) and private key (Decrypts). Together they make a key pair

1.3.d Describe digital signatures, certificates, and PKI:

Digital Signature:

When you sign something, it often represents a commitment to follow through, or at least prove that you are who you say you are. In the world of cryptography, a digital signature provides three core benefits:
Data integrity

Digital Certificates:

A digital certificate is an electronic document that identifies a device or person. It includes information such as the name of a person or organization, their address, and the public key of that person or device.

There are different types of certificates, including root certificates, and identity certificates, which identify devices such as servers and other devices that want to participate in PKI.


The purpose of a public-key infrastructure is to manage keys and certificates.
By managing keys and certificates through a PKI, an organization establishes and maintains a trustworthy networking environment. A PKI enables the use of encryption and digital signature services across a wide variety of applications.

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